Net Neutrality and the Digital Divide

The world has become very comfortable with the convenience of digital technology. So much so, that many of us can hardly recall functioning without it. I personally thank God that I can shop online. Not only do I have more variety but I can price comparison shop all without changing out of my night clothes. I don’t have to drive or wait in line, I get instant gratification, something everyone can appreciate.

The subject of Net Neutrality addresses these conveniences because it basically preserves the functioning of the internet as we have come to know it. Net Neutrality insures that the speed of access of web content provided by internet service providers is equal to all users. Net Neutrality has become an issue because internet service providers believe that companies should have the option of being able to pay to have access to a hyper fast delivery of web content. This becomes a problem for smaller companies that can’t afford to use the hyper fast option, but have competitors that can. Most internet users if given the option would choose the quicker site, especially if they offer the same thing.

In February,  people in favor of Net Neutrality got some help from the government. The Federal Communications Commission exclaimed that the internet, wired and wireless, has evolved into a necessity like water and electricity and because of this it should be considered a public utility. The FCC because of this can supervise corporations that provide internet service to make sure they provide fair access.

(Vox).(2015,February, 26). The FCC’s new net neutrality rules, explained in 172 seconds. Retrieved from The FCC Net Neutrality rules explained in 172 seconds / YouTube

(Last Week Tonight). (2014, June, 1). Last Week Tonight with John Oliver: Net Neutrality (HBO). Retrieved from Last Week Tonight with John Oliver: Net Neutrality (HBO) / YouTube

(Last Week Tonight). (2015, March, 3). Last Week Tonight With John Oliver – Net Neutrality Update. Retrieved from Last Week Tonight With John Oliver – Net Neutrality Update / YouTube

News in a New Era

A daily ritual for most of my formative years was watching the nightly news with my mother. Deborah Crumble was, and still is, a news junkie. On a regular day, from the time she wakes up at 5am until she starts to doze at around 10pm, my mother has ingested at least seven or eight different news related shows. Good Morning America, Inside Edition, The View, WGN Nine o’clock news, Nightline, Face the Nation, 60 Minutes, before I ever cared about what was going on in the world I was familiar with these and many other news programs.

The field of news reporting has undergone a transformation since  the advent of the internet, and is still evolving. So many different variable are now available for relaying the daily happenings, and no longer are the “professionals” the only ones relied on to give credible information. The internet has allowed the everyday citizen access to the public through traditional news reporting outlets, and in spite of them. In an interview for CNN Tina Brown of the news site The Daily Beast exclaims that in order for todays journalist to stay relevant they must be able to tell the story, content is always going to be needed(2012).

Most of the local news gathering followed the same rituals and practices that dictated much of the content of a broadcasts across the country. Much of the time I would flip between two, five, and seven, and see the same show. News reporting outlets now embrace the value of user generated content to not only give a different perspective, but also to attract new viewers to conventional broadcast. In “Modeling the Adoption and Use of Citizen Journalism  by Online Newspapers” Seungahn Nah,  Masahiro Yamamoto, Deborah Chung, and Robert Zuercher, research the interaction between citizen journalist and professionals(2015). The researchers discovered that user generated content is more likely to be utilized by professionals with experience in online journalism, and the size of online staff was a factor.

In “The American journalist in the digital age; key finding”, Lars Willnat and David H. Weaver dissect over forty years of trends in journalism. Researchers found that todays journalists don’t consider broadcasting to large audiences and spreading information quickly as important as investigating government and dissecting complex issues(2014). Tina Brown also explains in an interview with Christina Amanpour that there is a desire by young journalist to continue the tradition of investigative journalism as well as a variety of opportunities in the utilizing the medium (2012).

Zuercher, R., Yamamoto,M., Nah,S., Chung,D.(2015). Modeling the adoption and use of citizen journalism  by online newspapers. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly. 92(2) 399 –420.

Willnat, L., Weaver,D.(2014).The American journalist in the digital age; key findings. School of Journalism, Indiana University. The American Journalist in the Digital Age

(Newspoliticsinfo).(2012,July,6).The evolution of journalism. Retrieved from The Evolution of Journalism /YouTube

(Nespoliticsinfo).(2012,July,6).Journalism in the 21st century. Retrieved from Journalism in the 21st Century

My Recommendations Week 3

The world of news reporting and coverage has definitely been transformed by the digital revolution. We are in an age of information overload, where breaking news is accessible 24 hours a day. In the “The American journalist in the digital age; key finding”, Lars Willnat and David H. Weaver continue a study on trends in journalism started on 1971 by sociologist John Johnston, and continued in 1982 by David H. Weaver. The article also explores why journalist think that journalism is going in the wrong direction, including declining profits, online media, downsizings, the need for a new business model, as well as hasty reporting.
I also found an interesting interview of Christine Amanpour for CNN with journalist Harold Evans and Tina Brown, discussing the evolution of news, how the digitalization of the medium has impacted journalists, and how to stay relevant in the news reporting field.

Willnat, L., Weaver,D.(2014).The American journalist in the digital age; key findings. School of Journalism, Indiana University.
The American journalist in the digital age

(Newspoliticsinfo).(2012,July,6).The evolution of journalism. Retrieved from The Evolution of Journalism YouTube

(Nespoliticsinfo).(2012,July,6).Journalism in the 21st century. Retrieved from Journalism in the 21st century YouTube

Understanding Digital Natives

I was raised during a very exciting, and yet peculiar time. A true 80’s baby, I was born in 1980, I was of age during the crest of the “Digital Revolution”. I remember taping songs off the radio when WGCI had their daily nine at nine. I also remember waiting for the families Apple laptop and internet connection to load up so I could look at the infectious diseases webpage I was so obsessed with. It was a time of duality that I didn’t fully grasp the significance of, all I knew was I had to take typing and computer class, and I could call my mother whenever I wanted on her brick-like cell phone. I’m so grateful that I got to experience my life without being inundated with so much digital technology like kids today, because it allows me to appreciate it more, and to advocate and translate new mediums to older generations.

Although I did and presently partake in many digital conveniences, I would not be considered a digital native. Digital Native is a term that was coined by Mark Prensky in 2001. It conveys the idea that the current generation of students are “native speakers” of the digital language, meaning they would be fluent in understanding digital technology because its all they have been exposed to(2001).

In “The current state of digitalization: Digital Native, Digital Immigrant and Digital Settler” Adile Kurt, Selim GÜNÜÇ, Mehmet Ersoy, discuss the characteristics of digital natives, digital immigrants, and digital settlers, and how this impacts their learning and teaching experiences (2013). It is further explains the significance of digital natives speaking the digital language of the internet, computers, and video games, and this has changed their way of learning. Where as most of the educators of digital natives were taught with text based tools, digital natives are quite familiar with technology being used in the education process. The article concludes that todays world is requiring that individuals be trained to process information efficiently, so learners expect current technology to be utilized in the learning process. The researchers also suggested that because of the outdated material of which the definition of a digital native was based on, the term digital native should be redefined to include broader characteristics.

In “The Net Generation and Digital Natives: Implications for Higher Education”, Dr. Christopher Jones and Binhui Shao discuss the plethora of terms that have increased to describe the young people that have grown up in a “digitally rich environment”, including Millinials, Net Generation, Digital Natives, Digital Immigrant, and Generation Y(2013). This literature points out particularly how as new innovation emerge, how society defines the impact has changed. I found the explanation of Prensky’s “digital wisdom” term particularly interesting. Prensky, who proposed the terms digital natives and digital immigrants, later explained those distinctions to be not as relevant because “digital wisdom” is accessible to everyone. Prensky describes digital wisdom as “the ability to find practical, creative, contextually appropriate, and emotionally satisfying solutions to complicated human problems” (Prensky,2009).

This and other factors have created a schism in our current digital reality that theorist refer to as the digital divide. According to Aleph Molinari, “The digital divide is the gap between individuals and communities that have access to information technologies and those that don’t”(Molinari, 2012). Molinari further expounds that the three main reasons why we have a digital divide are because of a lack of access due to affordability, a lack of knowledge on how to use the technology, and or a lack of knowledge of the benefits of the technology(Molinari, 2012). David Buckingham, a professor at London University, describes another aspect of the digital divide in The real digital divide, where he discusses how communication competency plays a role in utilizing technology.

Some would consider me to be a digital immigrant, one who had to learn and adapt to using digital innovations, as opposed to those technologies already having been a part of the world that revolved around me(Jones,Shao,2011). Many older generations do not understand to convenience of utilizing todays digital mediums and I get it. Many older people have spent a lifetime doing the same things, the same way, and don’t feel there is a reason to change especially with the feeling that they’re closer to crossing over to the other side as opposed to the digital divide.

Jones,C.,Shao,B.(2011).The Net Generation and Digital Natives: Implications for Higher Education. Higher Education Academy.

Kurt,A.A.,& GÜNÜÇ,S.,Ersoy,M.(2013).The current state of digitalization: Digital Native, Digital Immigrant, Digital Settler Journal of Faculty of Educational Sciences,46(1),1-22.

Molinari, Aleph.(2012).TED. Let’s Bridge the digital divide. Retrieved from
http://www.ted.com/talks/aleph_molinari_let_s_bridge_the_digital_divide.html

Prensky, M.(2001).Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants. On the Horizon, 9(5), 1-6.

Prensky, M.(2009).H.Sapiens Digital: From Digital Immigrants and Digital Natives to Digital Wisdom. Journal of Online Education, 5(3).

Mitchinson,J.(janemitchinson).(2013,July 11). David Buckingham discusses the real digital divide (video file). Retrieved from David Buckingham YouTube

My Recommendation This Week 2

The digital revolution has fostered several new terms in todays society. This language directly correlates to our everyday interaction with technological innovations. Technical jargon like “trending”, “selfie”, and “google it” are part of our everyday conversations and have transformed the English language we once learned. In “The current state of digitalization: Digital Native, Digital Immigrant and Digital Settler”, Adile Aşkım Kurt, Slim GÜNÜÇ, and Mehmet Ersoy(2013), explore how our society has reacted to the digital boom and categorized how specific groups interact with digital technology.
I also recommend reading “What does it mean to be a digital native(2012)” by Oliver Joy for CNN. The article discusses the origins of the term “digital native” and how technology has permeated the world as we know it.

The current state of digitalization

Kurt,A.A.,& GÜNÜÇ,,S.,Ersoy,M.(2013).The current state of digitalization: Digital Native, Digital Immigrant, Digital Settler Journal of Faculty of Educational Sciences,46(1),1-22.

What does it mean to be a digital native

Joy,O.(2012).What does it mean to be a digital native. Retrieved from https://ezproxy.library.astate.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eue&AN=91263003&site=eds-live

My Recommendation This Week 1

The topic of “Communications Revolution” is so vast, and can be explored in several areas. Revolutions in Communications; Media and history from Gutenberg to the digital age, by Bill Kovarik, is a expansive resource on this topic. This resource also host a thorough website complete with a media timelines chronicling innovations and events.

Kovarik,B.(2011).Revolutions in communication:Media history from Gutenberg to the digital age.New York:Continuum.

Revolutions in Communications;Media history from Gutenberg to the digital age by Bill Kovarik